Social Science Research Network (SSRN)
Submitting a Paper to the SSRN eLibrary
- What is the Social Science Research Network?
- What is SSRN's Objective?
- What is SSRN's Commitment to Authors and Readers?
- What are SSRN's specialized Subject Area Networks?
- Who produces the Social Science Research Network?
- Which publishers and institutions does SSRN work with?
- How do I contact SSRN?
- Do I need an account to use SSRN?
- What is the usage policy regarding personal information on the SSRN site?
SSRN Web Usage
- How do I use my SSRN User Headquarters (HQ) account to submit a paper?
- Is my paper eligible for inclusion and public display in SSRN's eLibrary?
- How can I have my own paper included in the SSRN eLibrary?
- How can I submit a non-English paper?
- How can I create a PDF file?
- Is there a fee for a researcher to submit his/her paper to the site?
- Does the institution where the researcher is working need to subscribe to SSRN in order for him/her to be able to submit papers?
- Is my paper eligible for distribution in SSRN's eJournals?
- Is submission of a paper to SSRN tantamount to prior submissions by scholarly refereed journals?
- Does submission to SSRN restrict in any way what I can do with my paper?
- What do I need to know about Copyright Policies?
- What should I do if I suspect a copyright violation or plagiarism in a paper posted on SSRN?
- How do I Revise my previously submitted paper?
- How does SSRN handle multiple versions of a paper? What is a Version Group?
- Can I include non-SSRN URLs in my submission to SSRN?
- How do I change my Affiliation(s)?
- Which Internet browsers does SSRN support?
- What are Cookies?
- What is a Download? What is an Abstract View?
- What is RSS?
- What is the SSRN eLibrary?
- How do I SEARCH for a paper in the SSRN eLibrary?
- What is QuickSearch?
- What is "Search Within Results"?
- How do I find further information (including an abstract) about this paper?
- How do I obtain a copy of the whole article if I am interested?
- Can I read the full text of the paper online?
- Am I downloading the full text file from the SSRN site?
- What should I do and who do I contact if I have difficulty downloading a full text file?
- What is the charge for using the SSRN eLibrary?
- What are SSRN's "Top Papers", "Top Authors" and "Top Institutions"?
- What is a Top Ten List?
- Where can I find Professional Announcements and Job Openings listings?
- What is Eigenfactor®?
- What is "Purchase Bound Hard Copy"?
- What is a SSRN abstract eJournal?
- How do I subscribe to abstract eJournals?
1. What is the Social Science Research Network? ↑ back to topSubmitting a Paper to the SSRN eLibrary
Social Science Research Network (SSRN) is a world wide collaborative of over 226,000 authors and more than 1.7 million users that is devoted to the rapid worldwide dissemination of social science research. Founded in 1994, it is composed of a number of specialized research networks in each of the social sciences. Each of SSRN's networks encourages the early distribution of research results by reviewing and distributing submitted abstracts and full text papers from scholars around the world. SSRN encourages readers to communicate directly with other subscribers and authors concerning their own and other's research. Through our email abstract eJournals we currently reach over 400,000 people in approximately 140 different countries.
SSRN's email abstract eJournals cover over 1,000 different subject areas. The Abstract Database contains information on well over 484,000 scholarly working papers and forthcoming papers. The eLibrary currently contains over 393,000 downloadable electronic documents in Adobe Acrobat PDF format. Our users are downloading over 11 million full text papers annually. To browse SSRN's eLibrary subject area networks, click here.
SSRN supports the Open Access movement. All scholars may submit papers for free, and author-submitted content is downloadable at no charge by users world-wide.
SSRN has again been named the Number 1 Open Access Repository in the World (for July, 2012) by the Ranking Web of World Repositories. Our thanks to all of the SSRN community who helped make this happen.
2. What is SSRN's Objective? ↑ back to top
SSRN's objective is to provide rapid worldwide distribution of research to authors and their readers and to facilitate communication among them at the lowest possible cost. In pursuit of this objective, we allow authors to upload papers without charge. And any paper an author uploads to SSRN is downloadable for free, worldwide. We allow publishers and other institutions to charge users for downloading papers while encouraging them to charge fees that are as low as possible. Our rule is that the price for such papers on SSRN must be equal to or below the lowest price that such papers are available anywhere on the web to non-subscribers. The vast majority of downloads of papers from the SSRN eLibrary are free.
3. What is SSRN's Commitment to Authors and Readers? ↑ back to top
SSRN is committed to providing authors and readers with the highest quality, most reliable services in the distribution of research. The 226,000+ authors who have contributed their research to SSRN have trusted us with their intellectual output. We are committed to fulfilling that trust. We are scholars, and we respect, above all, our authors' rights in their material. We have never and will never behave opportunistically with our authors' material. You can count on this from SSRN and from each of us that help SSRN perform on its commitments.
4. What are SSRN's specialized Subject Area Networks? ↑ back to top
Accounting Research Network (ARN)
The Accounting Research Network (ARN) distributes quality research in accounting topics including financial accounting, managerial accounting and audit, tax and litigation. Our eJournals distribute abstracts of articles dealing with empirical, experimental, and theoretical research in financial and managerial accounting, auditing, and tax strategy. ARN is directed by Ross Watts, Professor at the Sloan School of Management at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
Cognitive Science Network (CSN)
The Cognitive Science Network (CSN) is directed by Mark Turner. Turner is Institute Professor of Cognitive Science at Case Western Reserve University. A presentation of the evolving organization of CSN - including advisory boards, projects, keywords, topics, categorizations, and varieties of publication - is maintained at https://sites.google.com/a/case.edu/csnkeywords/. Please send your comments and suggestions to email@example.com.
Corporate Governance Network (CGN)
The Corporate Governance Network (CGN) is directed by Lucian Bebchuk, William J. Friedman and Alicia Townsend Friedman Professor of Law, Economics, and Finance, and Director of the Corporate Governance Program, at Harvard Law School, with input and help from other members of the Corporate Governance Program. CGN is creating an online community interested in the expanding area of corporate governance research.
Economics Research Network (ERN)
The Economics Research Network (ERN) distributes quality research in economics currently covering 44 subject areas. ERN is directed by Martin Feldstein and Michael C. Jensen. Feldstein is George F. Baker Professor of Economics at Harvard University and President of the National Bureau of Economic Research. Jensen is the Jesse Isidor Strauss Professor of Business Administration Emeritus, Harvard Business School, and Chairman of Social Science Electronic Publishing, Inc.
Entrepreneurship Research & Policy Network (ERPN)
The Entrepreneurship Research & Policy Network (ERPN) will include research from Harvard Business School Entrepreneurial Management Unit and Now Publishers' Foundation and Trends - Entrepreneurship, Innovation and Technological Change. By including the latest research from the Harvard Business School and peer-reviewed articles from Foundation and Trends, ERPN is working to become the most complete online resource for entrepreneurship research. We look forward to adding more institutions and peer-reviewed journals in the future. ERPN is directed by Robert Litan, Vice President, Research and Policy, Ewing Marion Kauffman Foundation.
Financial Economics Network (FEN)
The Financial Economics Network (FEN) distributes quality research in financial economics including corporate finance, banking and financial institutions, capital markets, derivatives and real estate. FEN is directed by Michael C. Jensen. Jensen is the Jessie Isidor Strauss Professor of Business Administration Emeritus, Harvard Business School, and Chairman, SSEP, Inc.
Health Economics Network (HEN)
The Health Economics Network (HEN) is directed by Thomas E. Getzen and assisted by Tor Iversen and David Cutler. Getzen is Executive Secretary and CEO of iHEA: the International Health Economics Association and Professor of Risk, Insurance and Healthcare Management at Temple University. Iversen is Professor of Health Economics at University of Oslo. Cutler is Otto Eckstein Professor of Applied Economics at Harvard University.
Information Systems & eBusiness Network (ISN)
The Information Systems & eBusiness Network (ISN) is an on-line venue providing access to working papers, tables of contents of eJournals, and professional announcements of interest to the eBusiness and eCommerce community. ISN is directed by Erik Brynjolfsson, Schussel Professor of Management Science, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT); and Marvin Bower Fellow, Harvard Business School.
International Business & Management Network (INTL)
The International Business & Management Network (INTL) is directed by Timothy M. Devinney, Professor of Strategy, at University of Technology, Sydney.
Leadership Research Network (LRN)
The Leadership Research Network (LRN) is directed by Nitin Nohria, Richard P. Chapman Professor of Business Administration and Senior Associate Dean and Director of Faculty Development at the Harvard Business School, and Rakesh Khurana, Marvin Bower Professor of Leadership Development at the Harvard Business School.
Legal Scholarship Network (LSN)
The Legal Scholarschip Network (LSN) distributes quality research related to law, economics, and business in 61 different subject areas. LSN is directed by Bernard S. Black, Ronald J. Gilson and A. Mitchell Polinsky. Black is Professor of Law, University of Texas Law School and Professor of Finance, McCombs School of Business, University of Texas. Gilson is Charles J. Meyers Professor of Law and Business, Stanford Law School and Marc and Eva Stern Professor of Law and Business, Columbia Law School. Polinsky is Josephine Scott Crocker Professor of Law & Economics, Stanford Law School.
Management Research Network (MRN)
The Management Research Network (MRN) is directed by Michael C. Jensen, Managing Director, Organizational Strategy Practice, Monitor Company; Professor of Organizational Strategy, Monitor University; Jesse Isidor Straus Professor of Business Administration Emeritus, Harvard Business School, and Chairman of Social Science Electronic Publishing, Inc.
MRN now consists of the Corporate Strategy & Business Policy Network, International Business Network, Management Network, Marketing Network, Negotiations & Dispute Resolution Network, Operations Research Network, Organizational Behavior Research Network, and Production & Operations Research Network.
Marketing Research Network (MKTG)
The Marketing Research Network (MKTG) is an online venue providing access to working papers, tables of contents of eJournals, and professional announcements of interest to the Marketing community. MKTG is directed by Al Silk, Lincoln Filene Professor of Business Administration Emeritus, Harvard Business School.
Negotiations Research Network (NEG)
The Negotiations Research Network (NEG) is an online venue providing access to working papers and professional announcements of interest to the Negotiation and Dispute Resolution community. NEG is directed by Max H. Bazerman, Jesse Isidor Straus Professor of Business Administration, Harvard Business School.
Organizational Behavior Research Network (ORG)
The Organizational Behavior Research Network (ORG) is directed by David C. Logan, Lecturer, University of Southern California - Marshall School of Business, and Senior Partner, CultureSync.
Political Science Network (PSN)
The Political Science Network (PSN) is directed by David A. Lake and Mathew D. McCubbins. Lake is Professor, University of California, San Diego. McCubbins is Professor of Political Science, Chancellor's Associates Chair, University of California, San Diego; Adjunct Professor, University of San Diego Law School; Visiting Professor, University of Southern California Gould School of Law.
Social Insurance Research Network (SIRN)
The Social Insurance Research Network (SIRN) distributes abstracts of research papers in all areas of social insurance: disability income and work injury compensation; health care delivery & financing; poverty, income distribution & income assistance; social security, pensions, & retirement issues; and unemployment insurance. SIRN is directed by Marilyn Moon, Vice President and Director of the Health Program and the American Institutes for Research (AIR).
Classics Research Network (CRN)
The Classics Research Network (CRN) is directed by Lesley Dean-Jones. Dean-Jones is Associate Professor,University of Texas at Austin.
Music Research & Composition Network (MRCN)
The Music Research & Composition Network (MRCN) is directed by Andre de Quadros, Professor of Music, Music Education, Boston University - School of Music.
Philosophy Research Network (PRN)
The Philosophy Research Network (PRN) is directed by Lawrence Becker. Becker is University Fellow, Hollins University.
5. Who produces the Social Science Research Network? ↑ back to top
The Social Science Research Network is produced by Social Science Electronic Publishing Inc. (SSEP). SSEP is an independent privately held corporation. Michael C. Jensen is the Chairman of SSEP; Gregory J. Gordon is the President of SSEP.
6. Which publishers and institutions does SSRN work with? ↑ back to top
Through our Partners in Publishing program we work with over 1,800 scientific journals and research institutions who provide us information on forthcoming papers and permission to have their work posted to SSRN. Please select the 'Partners in Publishing' link on our home page or click here for a complete list of these publishers, journals, and institutions. If your institution would like information on how to participate, please send an email to: Management@SSRN.com.
7. How do I contact SSRN? ↑ back to top
Our office is open Monday through Friday between the hours of 8:30AM and 6:00PM, United States Eastern. Support emails are answered within 2 business days. For immediate assistance, please phone our office during regular office hours.
By Email: Support@SSRN.com
By Phone from the United States: 877-SSRNHelp (877 777 6435) or (585) 442 8170
By Phone from outside of the U.S.: +1 585 442 8170
By Fax: (585) 442 8171
Social Science Electronic Publishing
2171 Monroe Avenue, Suite 3
Rochester, NY 14618
8. Do I need an account to use SSRN? ↑ back to top
Most of SSRN's core services are available to users without a SSRN account and without signing in. They include:
Some of SSRN's services do require that you sign into your SSRN User Headquarters (HQ) account. This account is free and requires only an email address and password to set up. The services that require sign-in include:
- Search or Browse the SSRN eLibrary
- View abstract pages for all papers
- Download free full text papers
- View Author pages for all authors
- View the Top 10 SSRN Rankings for authors, papers, institutions and subject matter areas
To sign in or to create a free SSRN User HQ account, go to http://hq.ssrn.com. Once signed in, you can change your User ID and Password, if you so choose, by clicking on the hotlinks located on the Welcome page. Many users find it useful to bookmark this SSRN User HQ sign in page.
- Submit a paper
- Subscribe to an eJournal
- View the references and citations tabs on a paper's abstract page
- View the entire SSRN Rankings list for authors, papers and institutions
- Submit and/or Register for a conference
- Make a purchase
- Manage your contact information including your institutional affiliation
9. What is the usage policy regarding personal information on the SSRN site? ↑ back to top
1. How do I use my SSRN User Headquarters (HQ) account to submit a paper? ↑ back to topSSRN Web Usage
To submit a paper to SSRN you must have a SSRN User Headquarters (HQ) account. This account is free and requires only an email address and password to set up.
SSRN's User HQ allows you to submit and manage your abstracts/papers in our system, manage your contact information and personal eJournal subscriptions, make purchases from SSRN, and access page features available only to registered users.
To sign in or to create a free SSRN User HQ account, go to http://hq.ssrn.com. Once signed in, you can change your User ID and Password, if you so choose, by clicking on the hotlinks located on the Welcome page. Many users find it useful to bookmark this SSRN User HQ sign-in page.
Prior to submitting a paper, enter your name, affiliation and contact information that will display on your SSRN Author page by using the Personal Info and Affiliation links in the left menu. To begin submission of a paper, access your My Papers page in the left menu. Once there, select the "Start New Submission" button. Detailed submission instructions are available below.
2. Is my paper eligible for inclusion and public display in SSRN's eLibrary? ↑ back to top
A paper must be part of the world-wide scholarly discourse covered by one or more of SSRN's subject area networks to be eligible for inclusion and public display in SSRN's eLibrary. Every submitted paper is reviewed by SSRN staff to ensure that the paper is a part of the scholarly discourse in its subject area. SSRN does not provide peer review for papers in the eLibrary.
An author may submit a paper that is not scholarly - for example an editorial or opinion paper. These works will be given an "Approved-Private" status (rather than "Approved"). The author can choose (on their My Papers page) to have the private papers appear on their Author page in the "Other Papers Section". These private works will not be searchable from SSRN's Search page, and will not appear within any network on the Browse page. The private papers are, however, searchable by external search engines (e.g. Google) if the author included them on their author page. The author may also post the URL elsewhere for download or send the URL of their private paper to readers.
3. How can I have my own paper included in the SSRN eLibrary? ↑ back to top
We invite you to submit your own papers for inclusion in our eLibrary.
For detailed instructions on how to submit, please watch the Submission Demo, and/or read our STEP-BY-STEP SUBMISSION INSTRUCTIONS below the demo.
Download Step-by-Step Instructions - click on the PDF icon to download these submission instructions
STEP-BY-STEP SUBMISSION INSTRUCTIONS TO SUBMIT OR REVISE SUBMISSIONS TO SSRN'S ELIBRARY
- Information Required for Submission:
- To upload the full-text paper, you must submit it as a PDF file. All languages accepted. (See 4. How can I submit a non-English paper?).
- Title (See instructions below for submitting Non-English language papers).
- Names of all authors along with their email addresses.
- Date paper was written.
- If your paper is part of an institutional working paper series, you will need the name of the working paper series and the working paper number.
- If the paper has already been published or accepted for publication, you will need the publication information for the "Reference" section of the submission form.
- Abstract of the paper.
- Permission from copyright holder (if not yourself) to post on SSRN.
CAUTION: As you fill out the submission form click "save" on each section to ensure that no work is lost. You can come back and finish this form later as long as you have clicked "save" on each section you have made changes in, or by clicking "save and close all" and then closing the browser window. You can return to finish the submission or revision by going to your My Papers page accessible from your SSRN HQ page. The paper will be listed in your "In Process Papers" section of your My Papers Page and its status in the Status column will be "Not Submitted". To continue the in process submission or revision click on the Edit button in the Edit Column for this submission.
- Sign into your SSRN account at SSRN's User HeadQuarters: https://hq.ssrn.com. If you do not have an account, you will have an opportunity to register and create a free account on this sign in page.
- After you sign in, you will be at your SSRN User Headquarters welcome page. Click the "My Papers" link in the menu to the left.
- To enter a new submission, click the "Start New Submission" button centered near the top of the page.
NOTE for making a revision on SSRN: If you know the paper has already been submitted to SSRN, you should do a revision rather than a new submission. To revise a prior submission, find the paper in the list of papers on your "My Papers" page, and click the "Revise" button located in the first column.
NOTE for working paper coordinators: Please ask your author to begin a submission, and have them add you as "Assistant" in the Author section. This will allow you to make future changes or additions.
NOTE for research paper series coordinators: If you are intending to revise a previously submitted paper, by one of your authors ask your SSRN contact for access to that submission.
- Upon starting the submission, you will be shown a message that SSRN does not take copyright on your paper, that you will be giving SSRN a non-exclusive right to distribute your paper and that you retain the right to remove your paper from SSRN at any time. Click "Continue" and begin entering information on your submission.
- What you see is basically an editable version of the SSRN public abstract page for a paper (with some additional submission management items). The basic procedure is the same throughout each section of the submission process on this page. If you move your cursor up and down through the form, you will see each editable section will be highlighted in bright yellow. Click on any yellow section to expand the section to an editable field. You can expand all the sections at once by clicking on the "Expand All Sections for Editing" link located in the top left under the Abstract tab. After entering or modifying the information in each section click "save" in the upper right-hand corner of that section. Or you can click on the "Save and Close All" option at the top left under the abstract tab if you wish to save and close all the open sections. If you make a mistake, you can always return to a section to correct it by clicking on any yellow section again to edit it.
- Any time you see a question mark icon, hover your cursor over it for additional information.
- At any time, you can refer to the status box (the vertical rectangle) on the right to determine if any required steps are still incomplete.
NOTE: As we said above you can return to finish a submission or revision at a later time. However, before leaving the submission form, click "save" on each section to ensure that no work is lost. To reopen a submission, go to your My Papers page. The submission will be listed in your "In Process Papers" section, and its status will be "Not Submitted". Click on the "Edit button" in the Edit column, finish your submission, and click the "Submit to SSRN" button once complete.
Below are more detailed instructions for the individual sections, from top to bottom:
- "Upload full text PDF document" (at the top of the submission page) - This is optional, but strongly encouraged. If you choose to upload a full-text paper, it must be a PDF file. Click the yellow section once to expand it, then click on the "Choose File" button to browse your hard drive to find the full- text PDF file on your computer. When located, double click on the full-text PDF file name and the SSRN system will begin uploading it immediately. (You can use these same steps to replace a full-text PDF that has already been uploaded.)
To download the full-text paper and verify that it is the correct file, click on the "PDF" icon while this section is expanded.
The checkbox "Add Paper URL to PDF" will be automatically checked. Once your submission has been processed this will add the following line to the bottom of the first two pages of your submitted PDF:
"Electronic copy available at: http://ssrn.com/abstract=XXXX" (where XXXX is the abstract ID for your submission).
This link allows readers to easily find your document online at SSRN. If you do not wish this URL to be added to your PDF file, uncheck the box.
To remove the PDF file from your SSRN submission (at any time), click the red minus sign (-) next to the PDF file name in the "Upload full text PDF document" section of the submission form.
NOTE for RPS working paper coordinators: If you are making a submission to a research paper series, please be sure you have included your cover page as the first page of the PDF file prior to uploading.
- "Availability" - By default, a new submission is "Publicly Available", which means it is searchable in the SSRN database and eligible for distribution in our eJournals.
You can set a submission to "Privately Available" by clicking the radio button labeled "Privately Available (distributable by me)".
Privately available papers will not appear in the SSRN search engine, and will not distribute in eJournals.
Making a submission Privately Available is a useful way to distribute drafts of a scholarly paper to a select audience by sending them the URL of the SSRN abstract page. You can make the paper Publicly Available at a later time if you so choose.
Non-scholarly papers such as Op Ed or opinion papers must be made "Privately Available". If you wish them to be publicly available in the "Other Papers" section of your author page you accomplish this by checking the "Include on Author Page" box for this paper on your "My Papers" page. Although checking this box will make this paper visible and publicly downloadable on your author page (in the "Other Papers" section) and will make it searchable by 3rd party search engines like Google and Bing, it will not be available to the SSRN scholarly search engine. Since SSRN has a very high Google page rank, this is a good way to distribute non-scholarly papers to the public.
You can make a scholarly Privately Available paper Publicly Available at any time by clicking the "Make Public" button for that paper on your "My Papers" page.
- "Title" - Click to expand. Enter the paper title, and click "save". Title case is required. The SSRN system will automatically implement title case in the title when you save it.
- "Authors" - Click to expand. Enter the first author's last name in the search field. Include the first name to reduce the results. Highlight and click the author's name in the search results. If the author is not found, click the "Enter New Author" button and follow the prompts to enter the author's information. You will need the author's e-mail address to enter the author into the database. The e-mail address acts as the unique identifier in the SSRN system for that person. If you do not have available all the necessary information for your co-author please let him or her know that they should update or complete their personal information in the SSRN system.
You can move an author up or down in the author order by clicking the arrows to the left of any name.
One author must be declared to be the Primary Contact. That author must have a valid email address in the SSRN system.
NOTE to submitter who is not an author: By default, the submitter is treated as an Author and as the Primary Contact. If you an assistant submitting on behalf of the author, you must add the author to the paper and then change yourself to "Assistant" (by clicking the "Assistant" radio button). This will ensure your continued access to the submission, and ensures that you will not appear as an author of the paper on the public abstract page. Click "save" when complete.
- "Paper Date" - Click to expand. Enter the date the paper was written or the date last revised, and click "save". If no date is entered, the default is the date of submission.
- "References" - Highlight and click "Working Paper Series" to expand.
- Submitting a Paper that is not included in a Paper Series, Journal or Book?
Leave the answers to both questions that appear in this section unchanged and click "save".
- Submitting a Paper that is included in a Working Paper Series
Leave the answer to the question: "Is this a working paper or an accepted paper?" to the default selection, WPS. If your paper has been selected to appear in a working paper series, select "Yes" in response to the second question: "Has this paper appeared, or been selected to appear, in a Paper Series, Journal or Book?". A search field will then appear. Enter the name of your working paper series (or portion of it) into the search field.
- If your series is found select your series from the search results . The page will refresh and you will then have an editable field to enter the working paper number. Enter the paper number.
- If your series is not found, click "Enter New Reference" and manually enter the name of the working paper series.
You may repeat the above process as many times as needed to enter all the working paper series applicable to this submission. When finished, click "save."
- Submitting a Paper that appears or will appear in one or more Journals/Books
To enter an "Accepted Paper Series" reference, click on the "APS" radio button following the question "Is this a working paper or an accepted paper?". In the search field that appears, enter the name of the journal/book (or portion of it). When the results appear, select your journal/book from the search results list. The page will refresh and you will then have one or more editable boxes to provide additional information. If the journal/book does not appear in the results, click "Enter New Reference", and a box will appear for you to enter the reference manually. Manually entered references should not include DOIs or external URLs.
NOTE: Repeat this process as necessary to enter multiple references or working paper series IDs. Click the red minus (-) sign next to any unwanted entry to remove it.
"Abstract" - Click to expand. Type or copy and paste the abstract into the Abstract Body field. Copying and pasting is recommended to avoid errors. Enter a blank line between each paragraph. This abstract field is reserved for a description of the content of the paper, and should not include external URLs or disclaimers. It is advisable to keep your abstract less than 300 words. Entering keywords and JEL (Journal of Economic Literature) codes (if applicable) are recommended, but optional. They assist users in finding your submission in our public search engine and our classifiers in selecting eJournals for the distribution of your submission. If you do not have keywords or JEL codes, simply leave these fields blank.
NOTE for non-English language papers: An English version of the abstract must be included if you wish your paper to be publicly available. (See 4. How can I submit a non- English paper?).
"eJournal Classifications" - SSRN eJournals are e-mail abstracting journals that contain title, author and abstract of each submission in a subject matter area. Click "eJournal Classifications" to expand this section. You can select up to 12 subject matter eJournals for distribution of the abstract of your paper, or you can elect to have SSRN classify your submission for the relevant subject/topic areas by clicking the radio button "Have SSRN select eJournal classifications for this paper". All of your classifications will be reviewed by SSRN classifiers as well as by the editors of each selected eJournal. If you know the name of the SSRN eJournal you wish to classify into, type it into the Search field and select it from the drop-down box. To browse the available eJournal choices, you can expand the list under "Browse SSRN eLibrary" by clicking the plus sign (+) next to the appropriate network. To select a classification, click the checkbox next to the relevant eJournal, topic or sub-topic. Move your cursor over the classification names to see a more detailed description. As you select classifications, they will appear in a list at the top of this section. You can remove any classification by clicking the red minus (-) sign to the right of any classification.
"Status Box" - Review the Status box to the right of the submission form to confirm all sections are Complete. All sections must be labeled "Complete" in order to submit.
- "Make Immediately Available" - In most cases you will have the option to click the checkbox next to "Make Immediately Available". If you click this checkbox, your submission will be made immediately available to the SSRN eLibrary and to the SSRN scholarly search engine after you submit it. It will show up in the SSRN eLibrary on a watermarked page that will say: "UNDER REVIEW BY SSRN". That watermark will disappear when SSRN staff has approved the paper. See below for more on SSRN's review.
- "Submit to SSRN" - After you have verified that all sections are complete, you can then click the "Submit to SSRN" button.
IMPORTANT: A notice will pop up asking you to certify that you authorize SSRN to post and distribute the submission. By checking the box and clicking "Submit to SSRN", you do not convey copyright to SSRN, but you do agree to the following conditions:
"I certify that the information submitted is correct and convey to SSRN the non-exclusive, revocable right to post and electronically distribute the abstract (and full text paper, if submitted to SSRN). Generally, an author can convey this right, unless he or she has given exclusive electronic rights to a publisher. If you have questions about copyright for a published article, please contact the publisher or contact SSRN."
What Happens Next:
- SSRN Review - Your submission has now been submitted to SSRN for review. SSRN is committed to review all submitted papers for public release on the SSRN site within 24-48 hours, but on occasion it may take longer. You and your co-authors will receive an email confirmation when processing has been completed.
- You can return to your "My Papers" page and you will see the submission listed in the section labeled "In Process Papers". Its status in the Status column will be "Submitted" or "Approved-Author" (the status shown when "Make Immediately Available" has been selected).
- You will be able to edit your submission by clicking the "Edit" button in the left hand column of the "In Process Papers" section of your My Papers page. This puts the paper back into "Not Submitted" status. Make the desired changes using the same procedures outlined above, and be sure to click "Submit to SSRN" when you are done to resubmit the paper to SSRN for processing.
- Once the SSRN review process begins, your "Edit" button will disappear and your paper status will then be "In Review". After SSRN has reviewed and "Approved" the submission, the status will change to "Approved" and the submission will be moved into your Publicly Available Papers section of your "My Papers" page and it will appear on your SSRN public Author Page in the Scholarly Papers section.
- If you requested your paper to be Privately Available it will appear in the Privately Available Papers section of your My Papers page and it will not appear on your public Author Page. If you wish a Privately Available non-scholarly paper to appear on your Author Page in your "Other Papers" section click the box in the "Include on Author Page" column on the right hand side of Your My Papers page. If you wish a Privately Available scholarly paper to appear in your Scholarly Papers section of your Author Page click on the button "Make Public" on the right hand side of your My Papers page.
- Once the paper review process is complete, the eJournal classifications of your submission will be available for review by our classifiers. You will notice that the "Status" column for your paper on you're My Papers page contains a link that will give you information on the status and/or distribution schedule for each classification selected for this paper.
SSRN's Scholarly Paper Policy: SSRN is devoted to the public display and distribution of scholarly research in a broad range of fields from Economics, Law and Management to Political Science, Neuroscience, Philosophy and Music amongst others. SSRN does not peer review submissions. A submission that is not part of the world-wide scholarly discourse in its field is not eligible for public distribution through the SSRN eLibrary and SSRN's search engine. A submission that does not meet the scholarly discourse standards in its field, for example an Op-Ed or opinion piece, will be set to Privately Available. A Privately Available submission can be selected to appear in the "Other Papers" section of one's author page by checking the box under the "Include on Author Page" column found on an author's "My Papers" page.
- If you have any problems or questions, please feel free to contact our office, and our Customer Support Team will gladly walk you through the submission process. We can be reached by email: Support@SSRN.com or by phone: 877-SSRNHelp (877-777-6435) in the United States, or +1 585-442-8170 outside of the United States. We are open Monday through Friday between the hours of 8:30 AM and 6:00 PM, United States Eastern time.
4. How can I submit a non-English paper? ↑ back to top
Process for submitting a document with a non-English language title and/or abstract, and/or non-English PDF document:
- How to submit a PDF document in a language other than English:
- An English title and English abstract are required for a submission to be Publicly Available on SSRN. SSRN recommends including the non-English title and abstract as well. If no English title and abstract are included, you are still welcome to complete the submission in a language other than English, however, it will be set to Privately Available. This means it will NOT be publicly searchable in the SSRN database, but you may share the URL with others and have it show in the “Other Papers” section of your SSRN author page.
- On the SSRN submission form enter the non-English title first, followed by the English title in parentheses.
- When entering the abstract on the SSRN submission form, enter the non-English version of the abstract first, followed by the English version.
How to link multiple language versions of the same paper on SSRN
- SSRN encourages authors of non-English papers to also submit English language versions of the same paper to increase readership.
- If you submit an English language PDF document of this same paper, we ask that you include the SSRN URL of the non-English language version.
Please enter the following sentence as the first paragraph in the abstract of the English language version:
The [enter language of non-English paper] version of this paper can be found at http://ssrn.com/abstract=YYYYYY
(replace the "Y's" with the abstract ID number of the non-English language version of the paper)
Please enter the following sentence as the first paragraph in the abstract of the non-English language version:
The English version of this paper can be found at http://ssrn.com/abstract=XXXXXXX
(Replace the "X's" with the abstract ID number of the English Language version of the paper)
To be clear: The wording of the line above must appear in the language of the version it is pointing to. If a document is submitted in two or more other languages, you should follow the same policy as outlined above to point the reader to each of the documents.
5. How can I create a PDF file? ↑ back to top
SSRN only accepts PDF files. PDF stands for Portable Document Format. It is an open, universal standard for printer-ready documents containing text, pictures, charts, graphs, and more. Unlike a word processor document, all the elements on the page are fixed in place and ready to print.
There are many applications available to enable PDF conversion for Windows users. The following instructions make use of a free program called "doPDF", which is also used and recommended by SSRN staff. You can also use Adobe's free converter: https://acrobat.com/#page=signup_only&su=1.
First, install doPDF on your computer (you will only need to do this once):
After completing installation, "doPDF v7" will now be listed as one of your printers. This will enable you to create PDF files from within word processors, text editors, or any other application that has a "Print" option.
- Go to http://www.dopdf.com/.
- Click on the "Get it!" icon to save the dopdf-7.exe file to your desktop. (If prompted to choose "run" or "save", you can choose "run".)
- Double-click the dopdf-7.exe file on your desktop to run the doPDF Setup Wizard, and follow the prompts. It is unlikely that you will need to change any of the default options during this process.
Mac OS X users:
- From within your word processor, choose "Print..." from the "File" menu.
- Select "doPDF v7" as your printer.
- Click "Print" at the bottom of the dialog box.
- Click "Browse" to choose a location on your hard drive, and give the file a suitable name.
- Click "OK" to create the PDF.
PDF conversion capability is built into the Mac OS X operating system, so there is no need to download special software. PDF files can be created from any application that has a "Print" option.
- From within your word processor, choose "Print..." from the "File" menu.
- At the bottom left of the Print dialog box, click "PDF".
- Choose "Save as PDF..." from the drop-down menu.
- Enter the desired file name and choose a location.
- Click "Save" to create the PDF.
6. Is there a fee for a researcher to submit his/her paper to the site? ↑ back to top
No fee is charged for the submission of abstracts and papers for inclusion in the SSRN eLibrary and distribution in email eJournals. Authors are encouraged to submit all their research papers, including older papers.
7. Does the institution where the researcher is working need to subscribe to SSRN in order for him/her to be able to submit papers? ↑ back to top
No subscription is required on the part of any organization, school, or individual author as a prerequisite to submission.
8. Is My Paper Eligible for Distribution in a SSRN eJournal? ↑ back to top
A paper submitted to SSRN is eligible for distribution in SSRN's eJournals subject to the following conditions:
- The paper must be part of the world-wide scholarly discourse in the field covered by the eJournal.
- The date on the paper must be no older than 12 months from the date it is submitted. (We encourage authors to submit their historical papers that are older than 12 months, but they will not be distributed in SSRN's eJournals because readers expect papers in those eJournals to be recent research.)
- There are occasions in which for various reasons SSRN is delayed in distributing a paper that was less than 12 months old at submission (for example, the eJournal was in the start up phase and did not start distributing immediately). In such cases where the delay was caused by SSRN, we will make our best effort to distribute the paper (subject to approval of the eJournal editor).
9. Is submission of a paper to SSRN tantamount to prior submissions by scholarly refereed journals? ↑ back to top
We are unaware of any journals that consider SSRN's eLibrary or the email abstract eJournals to be "prior publication" since our services are basically an aggregation of working papers and not a refereeing process. If an author requests it, we will immediately remove their paper from the SSRN eLibrary.
10. Does submission to SSRN restrict in any way what I can do with my paper? ↑ back to top
No. And if at any time you wish to immediately remove a paper from SSRN, you may do it yourself through SSRN HQ, or contact us to remove it for you.
11. What do I need to know about Copyright Policies? ↑ back to top
SSRN does not take a copyright for any papers (or other documents) you post on SSRN. You grant SSRN a non-exclusive, revocable license that allows SSRN to provide its services to SSRN users. You retain the right to remove your paper from SSRN at any time, or to leave the paper on SSRN but make it only privately available.
When you provide material to SSRN, we ask you to confirm to us that doing so does not violate other parties' copyright or other proprietary rights. SSRN reserves the right in its sole discretion to delete or remove from the public eLibrary material that violates the rights of third parties or SSRN policy, as well as the right to terminate or restrict your right to post material on SSRN.
Generally, an author can convey a nonexclusive license to SSRN, unless he or she has given exclusive electronic rights to a publisher. If you have questions about copyright for a published article, please contact the publisher or SSRN. Most papers published prior to the mid 1990's may be placed on SSRN because few, if any, copyright assignment agreement(s) at that time included electronic rights. Therefore, the author owns them. You may submit papers of any age to SSRN.
If you do not own the digital copyright, many publishers will allow you to post the title and abstract of your work on SSRN. Many publishers allow an author to post the pre-publication version of a paper to SSRN. Some will allow you to post the final text, as published, if you ask for permission to do so.
SSRN holds copyright on its own pages and software and SSRN-created content and presents author content with the permission of the author or copyright holder.
The materials on SSRN may be downloaded solely for personal non-commercial use. No materials may otherwise be copied, modified, published, broadcast or otherwise distributed. Social Science Research Network, SSRN, SSRN.com and/or any other names of products or services provided by SSEP or referred to on this web site are trademarks of SSEP.
12. What should I do if I suspect a copyright violation or plagiarism in a paper posted on SSRN? ↑ back to top
If you are a copyright owner, please see our DMCA Notice Policy for the process to use to alert us to your concerns.
If we receive notice of a claimed copyright infringement, we retain the right to remove or limit access to material, whether or not we may be legally liable for infringement.
13. How do I Revise my previously submitted paper? ↑ back to top
To revise one of your submissions, sign in at http://hq.ssrn.com. Click on the "My Papers" link in the menu to the left. Click on the blue "Revise" button located to the left of the Abstract ID number of the corresponding submission and make the necessary changes.
When you are finished making your changes, please be sure to click the "Submit to SSRN" button (located on the last page of the revision process).
14. How does SSRN handle multiple versions of a paper? What is a Version Group? ↑ back to top
Often, when an author submits a revision of a paper that already exists on SSRN, they will replace the older version of the paper. But sometimes there are reasons to have multiple versions of a paper - for example, if a paper differs by one or more authors, or content, or if the history of previous versions is desired, or if it is the same paper translated into another language. If an author posts two or more papers that are substantially the same, SSRN will combine the 2 or more versions so that they appear together on the author page. SSRN calls this a "Version Group". SSRN defines a "Version Group" as "a set of one or more papers with substantially the same authorship and scholarly content such that a citation to one of the members of the set is essentially a citation to the entire set, and that a download of one of the members is essentially an expression of interest in the entire work represented by the set".
The effect of having a "Version Group" is:
SSRN evaluates whether a new submission is substantially the same as a previous submission. If we judge that it is, we will create a version group or add to an existing version group for the paper. If we have not identified 2 or more papers as substantially the same and you would like us to combine them into a version group, or if we have combined papers incorrectly, please contact us at AuthorSupport@SSRN.com or call the office at 877-SSRNHelp (877 777 6435) in the United States, or +1 585 442 8170 outside of the United States. We are open Monday through Friday between the hours of 8:30AM and 6:00PM, United States Eastern. Please note that we are currently unable to match an alternate language paper to its original version - please contact the office to request a version group or add a Comment when Submitting to notify us with which paper(s) it should be grouped.
- The papers appear together within one expandable row on the author page.
- The downloads and citations of the individual papers are summed and shown as a total for the version group on the author page
- The paper statistics "Citations" and "Download Ranks" displayed on the abstract page of any individual member of a version group are the statistics for the sum of the whole version group, not for the individual paper.
Currently, the Top Papers Ranking Table ranks individual papers only, not version groups. We plan to change the Top Papers to rank versions groups of papers in the future.
15. Can I include non-SSRN URLs in my submission to SSRN? ↑ back to top
Yes. Users regularly include, in the full text PDF of their paper, URLs that link to the articles they cite in their footnotes or references. We encourage authors to provide the URLs because it helps readers link to the literature relevant to that paper.
We do not allow non-SSRN URLs in the abstract section of the Public Abstract Page primarily because of our concerns about security and our ability to provide customer support.
Questionable URLs could be entered by malicious individuals during the submission process and cause a significant amount of harm to users (both SSRN staff checking them and external users if they became available publicly). There are some automated processes being developed to mitigate the risk but they are not fool-proof and SSRN, being a small company that does not charge for most of our services, does not have the resources to overcome the potential security problems nor the desire to incur the legal and reputational risks.
Customer support is another concern. Assuming a proper URL was submitted, we do not have the resources to support the URLs by testing them when the article is submitted, confirming that they have not broken over time, or repairing them when they break. Our users expect all of our links to work 100% of the time and when they have a problem they contact us. Since we cannot properly support non-SSRN URLs, we have chosen to not allow them to be included on the Public Abstract Page.
16. How do I change my Affiliation(s)? ↑ back to top
To enter/update your public contact information, sign in at http://hq.ssrn.com and click "Affiliations"ť in the menu to the left. To add a new affiliation, click the "Add Affiliation" button. Enter the name of the organization (i.e. "Harvard"), and click "Search". Once you find a match, click the "See Departments" button (if available) of that organization and work through the branches. (It is not necessary to narrow your affiliation down to the smallest department.) Click on the name of the specific school or department to affiliate yourself. If no match is found, click the "Add New Organization" link and enter it into the system.
To update your current information, click the "Edit" button by the respective affiliation. Make your changes and click "Update".
[Please note, the information found in the Affiliations section is seen as your contact information on your author page and abstract page. The information found in the Personal Info section is for primarily for billing purposes and designating the eJournal delivery e-mail address.]
SSEP may change the Terms from time to time, at SSEP's sole discretion. Your continued use of this website following the posting of such changes will constitute your assent to all such changes.
2. Which Internet browsers does SSRN support? ↑ back to top
SSRN supports the Internet browsers below. We recommend upgrading to the latest browser versions for optimal performance.
- Internet Explorer Internet Explorer 6, 7 & 8
- Firefox 3.5, 3.6 & 4.0
- Google Chrome 10
- Safari 5.0
- Firefox 3.6 & 4.0
- Google Chrome 10
3. What are Cookies? ↑ back to top
4. What is a Download? What is an Abstract View? ↑ back to top
Downloads are a measure of the number of times a paper has been delivered to an interested party either electronically as a PDF or as a Purchased Bound Hard Copy. SSRN takes great care to ensure that download counts are an accurate measure of reader interest in an author's work.
A SSRN download starts with the reader visiting the paper's "Abstract page". This visit to the abstract page counts as an "Abstract View" for the paper. Readers, who then want to read the paper, can then download the PDF file. In general, only one out of four abstract views results in a download. Because we display complete abstracts of every paper, interested readers make informed decisions regarding whether or not to download the full text of a particular paper, rather than uninformed explorations triggered only by a catchy or vague title.
In addition, SSRN makes significant efforts to not count "robot" or other inappropriate downloads. We do not allow single click downloads from external sources such as search engines or blogs. If we permitted this, download counts would be significantly inflated - estimated to be a factor that has been increasing over time and is now close to six. This would degrade download counts as a signal of paper quality, and substantially increase the ability of users to manipulate them. If SSRN finds errors in download counts due to technical problems or individual attempts to manipulate, SSRN will adjust those counts accordingly.
5. What is RSS? ↑ back to top
RSS is an abbreviation for Really Simple Syndication or Rich Site Summary. It is a standard for distributing updates to a web site on regular basis. Most news organizations have RSS feeds, and SSRN has created them for all SSRN authors and Rankings. Each author feed provides the latest updates, including new submissions and revisions, and the ranking feeds provide the current top ten papers, authors, or organizations. You can see the RSS feed in your browser by clicking on the icon: (the RSS XML link) or follow it by dragging/copying the icon from an author's home page or top of the Ranking page to a RSS news aggregator. RSS news aggregators are generally free and relatively easy to use. To find a selection of RSS news aggregators, search for "RSS aggregator" on Google by clicking here.
1. What is the SSRN eLibrary? ↑ back to top
The SSRN eLibrary contains working and accepted papers in the fields of financial economics, accounting research, legal scholarship, economic research and management research. It may be accessed from the SSRN home page (http://www.ssrn.com) by selecting 'SSRN eLibrary' or by choosing 'Search and Download Papers' on the function bar.
The library consists of:
Abstract Database: contains abstracts of over 484,000 articles contributed by scholars worldwide. Information includes complete title, author contact and affiliation information, abstract or description, distribution history in SSRN and print journals and availability of the full text of the article from our Electronic Paper Collection.
Electronic Paper Collection: a collection of files containing full text of over 393,000 working papers in downloadable Acrobat PDF format.
Author Home Page: The Public Abstract Page presents an Author Home Page link for each author, and can be accessed by clicking on the name of the author anywhere it appears as a hot link in the SSRN system. Each Author Home Page contains complete affiliation and contact information; current list of abstracts and full text documents available in the SSRN database, and current download counts for papers with full text documents.
2. How do I SEARCH for a paper in the SSRN eLibrary? ↑ back to top
On the SSRN Home Page http://www.ssrn.com select "SSRN eLibrary" or "Search". You may also click on the following link: http://papers.ssrn.com. This brings you to the Search page. On the left side there is a box entitled "Access eLibrary by:". Here you may choose to access the content of the eLibrary by "Abstract & Author" search, or by "eJournal or Topic", or by the Journal of Economic Literature "JEL Topic List". The page defaults to Search by "Abstract & Author".
"Abstract and Author" search of the eLibrary:
On the "Abstract and Author" search page SSRN's search engine searches the fields: author, title, abstract, keywords and date. You may search for all or part of a title, author name(s), word(s), a phrase, keyword(s), and the SSRN abstract ID number. You may limit your search by a date range. The search engine will return summary information (including the title, author, date posted, downloads and journal name) on the papers that match your search criteria. The initial results are sorted by total downloads of the full text paper. You can re-sort the results using the drop down menu, which provides options to re-sort by abstract title A to Z or Z to A, ascending and descending date posted, and ascending downloads. You can also use the "Search Within Results" to further refine the results. For more information see What is "Search Within Results"? If the paper has a downloadable full text PDF file available, it will have a "blue dog-eared page icon" next to the title. A "red dog-eared page icon" denotes a fee-for-download paper. Click on the title of any paper in the search results to be taken to that paper's abstract page for more information and to download the PDF file. Click on an author's name to go to that author's SSRN Author page, where you can view all of his/her papers on SSRN.
To Find papers by:
Title, Abstract or Keyword Enter a word, phrase or abstract ID number in the Search Term(s) field Exact Match Enclose the exact wording or phrase in quotes in the Search Term(s) field (e.g. "rock the boat") All of these words independent
of order ("AND" condition)
Enter all of the words that you wish to find together in the Search Term(s) field, each separated by a space
Search: happy people law
Returns: Papers with happy and people and law contained in the title, abstract and keywords fields, not necessarily together or in that order
Title Select Title Only radio button to limit the search to the Title field only Date Select date range from the drop-down list to limit results Author:
All of these names independent
of order ("AND" condition)
among ALL of the co-authors
Enter an author's name in the Author(s) field. Note: SSRN searches a field which contains all of the co-author names, which allows you to search for single authors or multiple authors using a space between the names. If you do not locate the author you are searching for on the initial search, you may use the Search Within Results box on the top left of the results page to further filter your results, or go back to the Search page to narrow or expand your name search.
Single author search:
Returns: Results of papers written by any author who has a first, last or middle name of Smith
Search: John Smith
Returns: Results of papers written by any author or set of co-authors whose names contain first, last or middle names of John AND Smith
Multiple author search:
Search: Smith Jones Brown
Returns: Results of papers written by any author or set of co-authors whose names contain first, last or middle names of Smith AND Jones AND Brown.
"eJournal or Topic" Access to the eLibrary:
If you click the "Journal or Topic" Access to the eLibrary on the top left side of the eLibrary Search page, you are brought to SSRN's Browse page. You can also access this page by clicking on the "Browse" icon in the grey bar in the page header. This Browse page contains the SSRN expandable subject area tree. You are initially viewing the research Networks in the SSRN eLibrary. In grey text following each name are the number of papers included in each Network. Clicking on the "+" sign next to a network opens a view of the next level of the hierarchy. You can continue to open up lower levels of the hierarchy by clicking on a next visible "+" sign. At any level below a top-level Network you can click on the title to view the list of papers in that subject area, sorted by descending date posted. You can re-sort the results using the drop down menu, which provides options to re-sort by abstract title A to Z or Z to A, ascending and descending download counts and ascending date posted. You can also use the "Search Within Results" to further refine the results. For more information see What is "Search Within Results"?
Located within the button next to each level of the Subject Area Hierarchy are details for each subject matter area: Classification descriptions, links to Top Downloaded Papers, Most Recent Papers, a Sample eJournal, and a link to Submit a Paper.
"The Journal of Economic Literature JEL Topic List" Access to the eLibrary:
If you click the "JEL Topic List" Access to the eLibrary on the top left side of the eLibrary Search page, you are brought to SSRN's Browse JEL Classification Codes page. The JEL codes (Journal of Economic Literature Classification System) are listed here and you can access the list of the papers in the SSRN eLibrary that the author tagged with one or more JEL codes. You can click on the JEL code in which you are interested to view the list of papers tagged with that code by the author, sorted by descending date posted. Once the list of papers has been returned, you can resort the results using the hot-links on the left side of the page under the title "Sort by" which provides options to re-sort by download counts, and abstract title A to Z or Z to A.
3. What is QuickSearch? ↑ back to top
QuickSearch is a way to search SSRN's eLibrary without going to the Search page. The name, term(s) or abstract ID number that you enter will be searched for in the following data fields: Title, Abstract Body, Keywords, and Author Name.
4. What is "Search Within Results"? ↑ back to top
Search Within Results is a search tool for SSRN that significantly enhances your ability to find papers of interest to you on SSRN. It is implemented in two locations on the site: i) the SSRN eLibrary Search page and ii) the SSRN eLibrary Browse page.
i) How to use Search Within Results on the SSRN eLibrary Search page:
Search Within Results on the SSRN eLibrary Search page allows you to search within the results of any initial search.
To use this functionality, go to http://ssrn.com/search, and first perform a standard search. To narrow your search results, use the Search Within Results box that will appear at the top left with your initial search results. Enter a word, name or phrase in the Search Within Results box and click "GO". SSRN will search for this term or phrase within your initial search results in the following fields: title, author(s) and their primary affiliation(s), abstract body, and keywords. A reduced set of results will replace your original search results. If you wish to narrow your results further, enter an additional search term, and it will search within your current results and return a further reduced set of results.
The hierarchy of your searches will display under the title "You've Searched for: " located beneath the Search Within Results box at the top left. If you wish to delete one of your search terms, click the red "x" next to the term. You can eliminate them in any order.
ii) How to use Search Within Results on the SSRN eLibrary Browse page:
Search Within Results on the SSRN eLibrary Browse page allows you to search within the list of papers that you get by clicking on any branch of the Network / eJournal / Topic hierarchy below the top network level in SSRN's browse list (the first level when the list totally collapsed). To see the top level browse list, go to http://ssrn.com/browse. At any level of the expanded browse list below the top network level, you can search the list of papers you get from clicking on the name of any branch or twig of the tree. For example, you may search the branch LSN Subject Matter eJournals, or drill down and search a more narrowly defined twig on the tree, e.g. LSN: Arbitration (Topic). This means you can search within groups of individual SSRN eJournals, an individual topic, a conference, Partners in Publishing Journals, Research Paper Series, etc.
Currently, SSRN is unable to to apply Search Within Results at the top network level (first unexpanded level of the browse list). We will be working to expand this functionality.
To use this Search Within Results functionality, go to http://ssrn.com/browse, then expand a network by clicking on the "+" sign. Choose any branch or twig that you wish to view by clicking on the name, and you will view all the papers included in it. You can then search within this list of papers by using the Search Within Results box located at the top left. Enter a word, name or phrase in the Search Within Results box and click "GO". SSRN will search for this term or phrase within the paper list of any branch or twig. Search Within Results searches the following fields for each paper: title, author(s), abstract body, and keywords. A reduced set of results will replace your original paper list. If you wish to narrow your results further, enter an additional search term, and it will search within your current results and return a further reduced set of results.
The hierarchy of your searches will display under the title "You've Searched for: " located beneath the Search Within Results box at the top left. If you wish to delete one of your search terms, click the red "x" next to the term. You can eliminate them in any order.
5. How do I find further information (including an abstract) about this paper? ↑ back to top
If you find a paper that interests you, you may select the title. The Public Abstract Page will appear containing the title, abstract, full author contact and affiliation information, JEL classification codes as well as other information. If the paper is included in the Electronic Paper Collection, you may download it from the Public Abstract Page and the total number of downloads to date is given to provide you an indication of prior interest in the paper.
6. How do I obtain a copy of the whole article if it is available? ↑ back to top
Many of the articles in the Abstract Database have the full text of the article available on our site. Availability of the full text article is indicated on the search results by this icon: (a blue dog-eared page). By clicking on the title of the paper in the search results you will be taken to the Public Abstract Page and the One-Click Download button located at the top of the page. If your browser is set up properly with the latest version of Adobe Acrobat Reader (available for no charge from http://www.acrobat.com) the electronic document will be downloaded to your computer and will automatically open in your browser or Acrobat for your local viewing and/or printing. The documents are locked so they cannot be copied or changed.
We have entered into a variety of relationships with the publishers to provide access to their fee-based research through the SSRN eLibrary. These papers are identified by this icon: (a red dog-eared page with a "$"). If you are purchasing a fee-based paper, you will click the 'Add to Cart' link and be linked to your Shopping Cart.
If the full text of the paper is not part of the Electronic Paper Collection, or if you wish to contact the author directly, you may use the contact information provided below the abstract. An email address is generally given for each author and a phone number or mailing address is provided for the contact author as well.
If downloading is prevented by the firewall software of your institution, or if you have trouble downloading a document and want it emailed to you, click on the "Email Abstract or Full Text Paper" button.
7. Can I read the full text of the paper online? ↑ back to top
No, we do not keep full text of the papers in a form for online reading. It can be downloaded in locked PDF format for local viewing and printing.
8. Am I downloading the full text file from the SSRN site? ↑ back to top
We maintain all of the files available in the Electronic Paper Collection on our own site to guarantee their reliability and availability.
9. What should I do and who do I contact if I have difficulty downloading a full text file? ↑ back to top
Obtaining the PDF Document
The full-text document can be obtained in two ways:
a) Downloading directly from the site
At the top of the public abstract page, click "One-Click Download", and a row of buttons for our sponsoring mirror sites will appear. Based on your IP address, the system will automatically select the mirror geographically closest to your IP address and start the download process. The file will be the same regardless of which mirror it comes from. If you do not automatically receive the full text PDF download, please click on another download location icon on the abstract page. On a PC, you can then select "Open" to view the file immediately (it will automatically be saved to your default location, typically the desktop), or select "Save" to choose a specific folder on your hard drive and open it from there. If for any reason this does not work, try right-clicking on the button and selecting the "Save As" option. If you experience slow download service and/or you think the download location chosen by SSRN for you is not the closest to you, please click on an alternate download location to initiate the download.
- OR -
b) Emailing the full text paper to yourself
Click the "Email" link at the top of the abstract page to have the PDF emailed to you, bypassing most browser issues. Enter the email address you would like the paper sent to, double check the address for accuracy, and click "Send Email". You will receive an email within a few minutes with the paper attached as a PDF file.
If you have tried both ways and still have trouble obtaining the document, it may help to clear the cache (temporary Internet files) and cookies from your browser's history.
Viewing the PDF Document
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If you are still having trouble obtaining or viewing the document after carefully reading the above instructions, please contact us by email: Support@SSRN.com or by phone: 877-SSRNHelp (877.777.6435) in the United States, or +1 585 442 8170 outside of the United States. We are open Monday through Friday between the hours of 8:30 AM and 6:00 PM, United States Eastern Standard/Daylight Time (EST/EDT). Please provide the following information:
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10. What is the charge for using the SSRN eLibrary? ↑ back to top
There is no charge to use the SSRN eLibrary. Members of the SSRN Community can access research from some the world's foremost research institutions within the eLibrary at no cost. Also, we have entered into a variety of relationships with publishers to provide access to their fee-based research through the SSRN eLibrary. See Fee Based Partner Publications for a complete list.
While fee-based research is a small part of the overall eLibrary, we believe that offering the broadest array of content provides the most value to our users. These databases of papers are fully searchable and access to the abstracts is free of charge. Since the publishing partners require a site subscription or fee to download a copy of their papers, SSRN is required to charge for downloading these research papers. These papers are identified by this icon: (a red dog-eared page with a "$").
11. What are SSRN's "Top Papers", "Top Authors" and "Top Institutions"? ↑ back to top
SSRN compiles rankings of Authors, Papers and Institutions in our system based on a number of relevant measures, such as downloads and citations. To be ranked, a paper must be a publicly available scholarly full-text paper on SSRN; an author must have at least one publicly available scholarly full-text paper on SSRN; an institution must have at least one author affiliated with at least one publicly available scholarly full text paper on SSRN. If you are signed in to SSRN or you have accepted a cookie, you have access to the entire ranking table. If you are not a known user, you will be able to view the top 10.
The importance of a paper, author, or institution cannot, of course, be captured by a single ranking. SSRN provides rankings based on a number of measures. These rankings are meant to complement other measures of a paper´s, author's or institution's scholarly impact, including the quality of the peer-reviewed journals in which the work is published. SSRN´s rankings can inform your thinking about the popularity and scholarly influence of papers, authors and institutions. They provide valuable data not previously available. However, these measures have important limitations. Use them carefully and wisely.
The date the ranking was compiled is shown under the title on the ranking page and the number of papers, authors, or institutions ranked is in the title of the Ranking Table. Most of the ranking tables are refreshed once every month.
Ranking tables can be accessed in multiple ways:
1) from the home page (SSRN.com, click on one of the "Top..." buttons located under our co-host institutions in the top center of the page).
2) from the "Search" page, or the "Browse" page -- click the "Top..." icon on the menu across the top of the page
3) from the links below
SSRN currently displays the following Paper Ranking tables:
SSRN Top Papers
SSRN currently displays the following Author Ranking tables:
SSRN Top Authors
SSRN Top Law Authors
SSRN Top Business Authors
SSRN Top Economics Authors
SSRN currently displays the following Institution Ranking tables:
SSRN Top Business Schools
SSRN Top U.S. Business Schools
SSRN Top International Business Schools
SSRN Top Economics Departments
SSRN Top Entrepreneurship Research & Policy Network (ERPN) Organizations
SSRN Top Law Schools
SSRN Top U.S. Law Schools
SSRN Top International Law Schools
A detailed explanation is available for each type of ranking from a link on each Ranking Table (called "Ranking Data Explained" in the top left of the ranking page). Links to three "Ranking Data Explained" are here:
Ranking Data Explained: SSRN Top Papers
Ranking Data Explained: SSRN Top Authors
Ranking Data Explained: SSRN Top Law Schools
12. What is a Top Ten List? ↑ back to top
We count the number of times a paper has been downloaded and rank them within different categories. These rankings include the Top Ten downloaded papers for All Time and for papers distributed in a SSRN email eJournal in the previous 60 days for each category. Top Ten Lists are available for all SSRN abstract eJournals and for each of its subject networks on the Browse by eJournal List. To view a Top Ten List, expand a network and click on button to the right of the name. Within the dialog box that opens, select "View: Top Downloaded", and a page will open which displays the All-Time and Recent Hits Top 10 lists.
Where can I find Professional Announcements and Job Openings listings? ↑ back to top
We distribute Professional Announcements and Job Postings eJournals which reach scholars, practitioners, and other professionals around the world. SSRN also includes the announcement or job posting on our site for six months.
Accounting Research Network Job Openings Announcements Pricing Cognitive Science Network Job Openings Announcements Pricing Corporate Governance Network Job Openings Announcements Pricing Economics Research Network Job Openings Announcements Pricing Entrepreneurship Research & Policy Network Job Openings Announcements Pricing Financial Economics Network Job Openings Announcements Pricing Health Economics Network Job Openings Announcements Pricing Information Systems Network Job Openings Announcements Pricing Innovation Research & Policy Network Job Openings Announcements Pricing Leadership Research Networkk Job Openings Announcements Pricing Legal Scholarship Network Job Openings Announcements Pricing Marketing Research Network Job Openings Announcements Pricing Management Research Network Job Openings Announcements Pricing Negotiations Research Network Job Openings Announcements Pricing Political Science Network Job Openings Announcements Pricing Social Insurance Research Network Job Openings Announcements Pricing Sustainability Research & Policy Network Job Openings Announcements Pricing Classics Research Network Job Openings Announcements Pricing English & American Literature Research Network Job Openings Announcements Pricing Music Research & Composition Network Job Openings Announcements Pricing Philosophy Research Network Job Openings Announcements Pricing Rhetoric & Communication Research Network Job Openings Announcements Pricing
To place an announcement or job opening or for more information, please email Announcements@SSRN.com or call 585.442.8170. Within the US, you can call toll free 877-SSRNHELP (877.777.6435).
14. What is Eigenfactor®? ↑ back to top
The author-level Eigenfactor® score is a weighted measure of an author's citations. It adjusts for the number of authors of the paper, the number of outgoing citations from each paper citing an author's paper and for the importance of the citing paper. All self citations are eliminated in calculating an author's Eigenfactor score. The score reported in the SSRN ranking tables is calculated from SSRN citation data only. To understand how this importance-weighting works, consider the following iterated voting procedure:
"Each author begins with a single vote and passes it on, dividing the vote proportionally based on those authors whom she cites. In other words, if she cites two authors - author A one time and author B two times - she would distribute 1/3 of her vote to author A and 2/3 of her vote to author B. After one round of this procedure, some authors will receive more votes than others. In the second round, each author passes on her current vote total, as received in the previous round, again dividing this quantity equally among those authors whom she cites. This process is iterated indefinitely. Eventually, we reach a steady state in which each author receives an unchanging number of votes in each round. An author's Eigenfactor score is the percentage of the total votes that she receives at this steady state." (p. 3) See West, Jevin D., Jensen, Michael C., Dandrea, Ralph J., Gordon, Gregory J. and Bergstrom, Carl T., Author-Level Eigenfactor Metrics: Evaluating the Influence of Authors, Institutions and Countries Within the SSRN Community (February 14, 2011). Harvard Business School NOM Unit Working Paper No. 12-068 (Data as of March 14, 2011). Available at SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=1636719.
15. What is "Purchase Bound Hard Copy"? ↑ back to top
OVERVIEW: In response to requests from authors and readers to purchase printed and bound hard copies of papers on SSRN, we provide a "Purchase Bound Hard Copy" service for most free PDF files in SSRN's eLibrary. This provides another format for readers to enjoy papers. Free One-Click Download is not affected by this service, and each copy purchased counts as a download in SSRN's download statistics. Authors and submitters may opt out of this service for all of their papers at any time (see "HOW TO OPT OUT OF THIS SERVICE" below for details). We have contracted with a New York company to do the printing, binding and shipping. We currently ship only to addresses in the United States.
ELIGIBILITY: If a paper is eligible for the Purchase Bound Hard Copy Service, the "Purchase Bound Hard Copy" option appears on the abstract page (to the far right in the same line as "One-Click Download").
In order for a paper to be eligible for the Purchase Bound Hard Copy option, all of the following must be true:
- It must be a free paper (fee papers are not eligible)
- It must be publicly available (privately available papers are not eligible)
- It must have a PDF file attached
- The number of pages in the PDF file must be between 19 and 310 pages. Shorter and longer PDF files are currently not eligible.
- All of the authors of the paper must be opted in to the Purchase Bound Hard Copy Service. If one author is opted out, the paper is not eligible. There is a record of the opt-out/opt-in history of the paper's authors in the author comments of the paper (accessible from each author's My Papers page).
- A non-author submitter of the paper (such as an administrative assistant, publisher, research organization, university working paper coordinator) must be opted in to the Purchase Bound Hard Copy Service. If the submitter is opted out, the paper is not eligible. There is a record of the opt-out/opt-in history of the non-author submitter in the author comments of the paper (accessible from each author's My Papers page).
HOW TO OPT OUT OF THIS SERVICE: Any author or submitter, who does not want to have his or her free papers in the SSRN eLibrary available for this service, can opt out at any time using any of the methods listed below. Note that if you request to opt out of the Purchase Bound Hard Copy service, ALL PAPERS that are authored, co-authored or submitted by you will no longer display the "Purchase Bound Hard Copy" option on your abstract page(s). We cannot currently opt out some of your papers and not others. You may change your participation status at any time in the future.
You may use any of these methods to change your opt-in status:
- Visit your My Papers page, and under the "My Preferences" title at the top left, uncheck the check box labelled "Opt-In to "Purchase Bound Hard Copy" Service for my public papers". This will immediately remove the "Purchase Bound Hard Copy" option from the abstract pages of your papers. This is the option with the least delay in implementing your request. If you wish to opt back in, just check the box again.
- Email the request to AuthorSupport@SSRN.com
- Call the SSRN office at 877-SSRNHelp (877-777-6435) in the United States, or +1 585 442 8170 outside of the United States, between 8:30 AM and 6:00 PM Monday through Friday (U.S. Eastern).
PRICE: The price for one or more bound hard copies is $9.99 per copy plus shipping.
SHIPPING: We currently ship only to addresses in the United States. Your order will be shipped from the printer within 3 business days. Several shipping methods are offered.
RETURN POLICY: Because each item is printed to order, we cannot accept returns. All sales are final.
PRODUCT DESCRIPTION:The PDF document will be printed in black and white and "perfect bound" with a glossy color cover (see sample cover below). The glossy cover will have the paper's title as it appears on the SSRN Abstract page printed in all bold text. The authors will appear vertically and left-aligned under the title in the order in which they appear on the SSRN Abstract page, with the authors' names in bold and their affiliation in plain italic text beneath their name. No affiliation will be printed if the author has not provided an affiliation to SSRN. If a paper has many authors, they may not all be printed on the cover. For papers with short titles (up to 250 characters), a maximum of 7 authors will be printed on the cover. If the number of authors exceeds 7, the text "... See inside for full list of authors" will be printed below the last author. For titles with character length between 250 and 500, a maximum of 5 authors will be printed on the cover. For titles with character length between 500 and 700, a maximum of 3 authors will be printed on the cover. For extremely long titles (700-1,000 characters), only one author will appear on the cover. The first page of the PDF file will be the first page inside the cover, and the PDF file will provide the full author list.
1. What is a SSRN abstract eJournal? ↑ back to top
Social Science Research Network (SSRN) is devoted to the rapid worldwide dissemination of social science research. Each of SSRN's research networks encourages the early distribution of research results by distributing abstracts and full text papers submitted by scholars around the world in what we call our SSRN abstract "eJournals." SSRN's email abstract eJournals currently cover over 1,000 different subject areas, and reach over 400,000 people in approximately 140 different countries.
An eJournal is an email sent to subscribers, which contains up to 12 abstracts of papers that have been written in the past year and have been submitted to SSRN. Each paper displays a title, authors, and an abstract of the paper along with a link to download the full text paper (when available on SSRN). Click here to view a sample eJournal. The majority of papers on our site may be downloaded for free. The number of eJournal emails distributed to subscribers each week is driven by the quantity of papers we receive in the subject area - if the number of recent papers received is low, then there may be only one eJournal every other week. If there is a significant number of new submissions received in that subject area, you could receive up to 5 eJournals a week. We try not to overflow your email inbox and will split eJournals when they distribute a high weekly volume for too long.
Some eJournals are free. Many eJournals require either an institutional subscription or an individual subscription. You may sign up for a free trial subscription for eJournals. (See How do I subscribe to abstract eJournals? video below for detailed instructions)
2. How do I subscribe to abstract eJournals? ↑ back to top
For general questions or comments about SSRN, email or contact 877-SSRNHelp (877.777.6435 or 585.442.8170), , SSRN President (585) 442.8170, or , SSRN Chairman (617) 510.3363.